Prescription Drug Use

Prescription Drug Use

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Prescription regarding medication is regarded as the most significant approaches of treating relieving and curing diseases within the healthcare environment. Appropriate prescription concerning drug use has been associated with significant improvements in the health outcomes of patients. However, the prescription about drug use and treatment has been shown to carry an array of risks that encompass adverse drug interactions and reactions as well as polypharmacy. Ideally, these conditions have been linked to increased hospital readmissions and healthcare costs. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the concept regarding prescription drug use based on an assessment of three articles.

Article 1: Zhao, L., Cross-Barnet, C., & McClair, V. L. (2018). Prescription Drug Use and Cost Trends among Medicaid-Enrolled Children with Disruptive Behavioral Disorders. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 45(4), 550–564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-018-9605-z

In their research, Zhao, Cross-Barnet, and McClair (2018) sought to examine prescription drug use as well as cost trends in the context of children that exhibit disruptive behavioral disorder. As well, these researchers provide that there have been significant perceptions pertaining to overtreatment and over-diagnosis regarding the disruptive behavioral disorder. The hypothesis states that was associated with this research was that there was a significant association between disruptive behavioral disorder and prescription drug use.

A critical assessment regarding the article provides that it had both independent and dependent variables. The independent variable regarding this research was disruptive behavioral disorder while the dependent variable was defined by prescription drug use. The participants associated with this study were Medicaid beneficiaries that were aged at most 20 years and had visited a healthcare facility once due to disruptive behavioral disorder.  The garnering regarding the data for this research was achieved through the use of the Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) file. This is an online database that was established through the initiatives of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and provides information about medication deployment and costs, prescription drug use, health services, and demographic characteristics among others.

The outcomes associated with this study indicated that psychotherapeutic medications represented a significant proportion of cists and prescriptions among children that had disruptive mental disorders and were enrolled to Medicaid programs.  It is observed that the disproportionate increment pertaining to the DBD diagnosis rates (24.5%)  compared to the rise in children with enrollments in Medicaid (8.8%) demonstrated increased proportion regarding Medicaid-enrolled kids with DBD. The results concerning this supported the hypothesis that there was a significant association between disruptive behavioral disorder and prescription drug use. The authors concluded that Medicaid-enrolled kids that have DBDs have considerable financial and clinical needs based on high rates of prescription drug use among them.   

Article 2: Martins, S., Kim, J., Chen, L., Levin, D., Keyes, K., Cerdá, M., & Storr, C. (2014). Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational attainment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology50(5), 713-724. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0980-3

Martins et al. (2014) in their article provide that nonmedical prescription drug deployment is a significant drug issue within the United States and is mainly engendered by the nonmedical utilization of prescribed opioids in the case of the youths. The hypothesis associated with this research was that there are significant risk differences regarding nonmedical prescription drug utilization and disorders in the case of females as well as males. The dependent variable in this research was disorders upon the stimulant use and prescription concerning opioids. The independent variable related to this study was the nonmedical prescription regarding stimulants and opioids. 

The participants that were used in this research consisted of young adults that were aged between 18 years to 22 years. In this case, the participants were assorted through the employment of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series. Ideally, this is a yearly cross-sectional survey which offers estimates pertaining to the prevalence concerning drug use as well as disorders (Martins et al., 2014). The research design that was used in this study encompassed a quantitative study design. In this case, data was obtained from 36,781 youths through the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series. The adjusted primary impacts associated with educational attainment alongside with association with race as well as gender were counted on. The findings related to this research indicated that the risk regarding nonmedical deployment of opioid prescription was insignificant among the educational achievement categories for Hispanics. The study outcomes supported the hypothesis that there are significant risk differences regarding nonmedical prescription drug utilization and disorders in the case of females as well as males (Martins et al., 2014). The researchers reached at a conclusion that intervention and prevention groups for young adults ought to be established in order to focus on nonmedical prescription drug utilization.

Article 3: Skoog, J., Midlöv, P., Borgquist, L., Sundquist, J., & Halling, A. (2014). Can gender difference in prescription drug use be explained by gender-related morbidity?: a study on a Swedish population during 2006. BMC Public Health14(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-329

Skoog, Midlov, Borgquist, Sundquist, and Halling (2014) provide that there is a considerable variation pertaining to medication prescription between females and males. As well, they assert that females have the tendency to use many prescription medications in comparison to males. Therefore, in their research, they sought to evaluate whether or not gender variations regarding drug therapy could be affected by gender-based morbidity. The hypothesis statement related to this study was that gender variations regarding prescription drug utilization can be explained through gender-based morbidity. The independent variable related to this research was multi-morbidity while the dependent variable was the utilization regarding prescription drugs (Skoog et al., 2014). The participants related to this research constituted individuals that were aged at least 20 years and had deployed at least a single prescription drug.

This study utilized a quantitative research design in which case data was garnered on all respondents that were aged at least 20 years. In order to compute the personal degree concerning multi-morbidity, the Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix framework was deployed.  The outcomes associated with this research indicated that gender variations pertaining to prescription drug deployment can be explained through gender-based morbidity. It is heeded that after adjustments regarding multi-morbidity and age were made, the odds pertaining to getting prescription drugs among males in comparison to females was 0.45 (Skoog et al.,2014). The investigators reached a conclusion that gender-based morbidity, as well as the deployment regarding anti-conception medications, can be explained by a significant part concerning the variation in prescription drug utilization between females and males.

References

Martins, S., Kim, J., Chen, L., Levin, D., Keyes, K., Cerdá, M., & Storr, C. (2014). Nonmedical prescription drug use among US young adults by educational attainment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology50(5), 713-724. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0980-3

Skoog, J., Midlöv, P., Borgquist, L., Sundquist, J., & Halling, A. (2014). Can gender difference in prescription drug use be explained by gender-related morbidity?: A study on a Swedish population during 2006. BMC Public Health14(1). doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-329

Zhao, L., Cross-Barnet, C., & McClair, V. L. (2018). Prescription Drug Use and Cost Trends among Medicaid-Enrolled Children with Disruptive Behavioral Disorders. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 45(4), 550–564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-018-9605-z

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