Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease related to Difficulty breathing in Adults

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease related to Difficulty breathing in Adults

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Introduction

It is patently clear that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant health concern among the adults and it encompasses emphysema as well as chronic bronchitis.  Patients that have COPD exhibit obstruction pertaining to the airway passage due to the excessive production regarding sputum and inflammation (Miravitlles & Ribera, 2017). In the case of emphysema, it is observed that there a partial destruction regarding the alveoli. Ideally, these problems engender difficulty in breathing as well as a reduction in the quantities regarding oxygen that is availed to the tissues in the body. According to the study by Miravitlles & Ribera, (2017), COPD has been known to affect averagely 24 million individuals and is the primary cause regarding death within the United States.  At the same time, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects women and men are mainly engendered by smoking. The aim regarding this paper is to carry out a literature review regarding the problem of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with difficulty in breathing among the adults.  The concept regarding COPD across the life span will also be examined in this specific paper. The paper will conclude with the assessment concerning nursing role and implications for patient care in relation to the concept across the lifespan. 

Literature Review

The condition regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder has been explored by various researchers with each investigator focusing on a particular area. In their cross-sectional study, Sudharani, Manasasowmya and Uma (2019) sought to examine the prevalence regarding stress, depression as well as anxiety among patients that COPD. The outcomes associated with this research indicated that the prevalence associated with stress, anxiety, and depression in COPD convalescents were 40%, 40%, and 48%. As well, the researchers provided that the duration regarding stay, the age concerning the convalescent, and the period regarding the illness were considerably associated with stress, anxiety, and depression. The researchers reached a conclusion that it is important to evaluate COPD with difficulty in breathing among the adults in order to enhance their quality regarding life. The concept regarding COPD has been examined by Turan et al. (2019). In this case, these investigators evaluated handgrip strength as well as the associated facets among COPD convalescents that had difficulty in breathing. The outcomes related to this research indicated that the average concerning handgrip strength was considerably lower among the patients that had COPD with difficulty in breathing than those that demonstrated stable COPD. In addition, the researchers observed that patients with COPD with difficulty in breathing. These investigators reached a conclusion that handgrip strength can be deployed in measuring muscle strength among convalescents that have COPD with breathing difficulties. Chauhan, Sood,  Takkar, Dhadwa and Kapila (2019) examined the muscle thickness pertaining to the  diaphragm as well as its importance to clinical practice among convalescents  with COPD and breathing  difficulties.  The findings regarding this research demonstrated there was no remarkable variation between COPD severity, diaphragmatic thickness as well as respiratory function.

Compare and Contrast the Concept across the Lifespan

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with breathing exhibits a significant variation across lifespan (Miravitlles & Ribera, 2017). A critical assessment regarding the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among the children indicates that it is significantly low. Ideally, this is attributed to the actuality that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is progressive in nature and as such, it is less likely that a child can develop it.  At the same time, the risk facets may have not been created up in order to engender COPD among children. However, research demonstrates that children are highly susceptible to COPD given that they are subjected to smoking regarding cigarettes or they engaging in smoking by themselves. In addition, there is significant research that demonstrates that children that have asthma as well as those that experience lung issues are highly susceptible to developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the future.

On the other hand, the prevalence concerning chronic obstructive pulmonary disease within breathing is considerably higher among the older populations. It is observed that the significant regarding COPD in the case of the adults is primarily attributed to two main factors. In the first place, it is heeded that age-associated variations pertaining to function and structure can enhance pathogenic vulnerability to COPD.  Ogan et al. (2019) assert that aging pertaining to the lung has a direct association with the development regarding COPD. Another factor that makes COPD more prevalent among the adults encompasses environmental influences. In this regard, it is observed that cumulative external insults can make adults to be significantly vulnerable to lung injury. Consequently, this has the potentiality of causing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among the adults.  On the same note, it is observed that adults that engage in cigarette smoking are considerably vulnerable to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As such, this provides significant implications that the children and young adults ought to be informed about the dangers associated with smoking and more especially the development regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.    

Nursing Role and Implications for Patient Care in Relation to the Concept across the Lifespan

The assessment regarding the literature as well as the comparison and contrast carried out provides significant implications for convalescent care and the nursing role. First, patients that have been affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been shown to have stress, depression, and anxiety which in turn affect the quality regarding life (Sudharani, et al., 2019).  As such, this provides implications that nurses have a critical role in the assessing for these conditions among COPD convalescents and ascertain the appropriate strategies to address depression, anxiety, and stress in order to augment their quality concerning life. Secondly, the evaluation regarding literature showed that handgrip strength can be deployed in measuring muscle strength among convalescents that have COPD with breathing (Turan et al., 2019). Therefore, nurses can always ascertain the muscle strength concerning the COPD patients they are caring for by utilizing the handgrip strength methodology.

At the same time, it has been shown that kids are vulnerable to the development regarding COPD provided that they are exposed to an environment that is characterized by smoking activities (Miravitlles & Ribera, 2017). Besides, it is heeded that kids that have asthma as well as those that experience lung issues are highly vulnerable having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the future. Therefore, nurses have a significant role of managing asthma and other lung problems in order to reduce their susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Miravitlles & Ribera, 2017). A good number regarding is significantly susceptible to COPD due to the actuality that they engage in cigarette smoking. In this regard, this provides implications that nurses need to educate COPD patients about the effects of smoking on their health and development of COPD. Finally, COPD patients ought to be provided appropriate medication and informed to cease smoking in order to augment the quality regarding life.

References

Chauhan, N., Sood, D., Takkar, P., Dhadwal, D., & Kapila, R. (2019). Quantitative assessment of airway and parenchymal components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using thin-section helical computed tomography. Journal of Radiology84, 54-60. doi: 10.5114/pjr.2019.82737

Miravitlles, M., & Ribera, A. (2017). Understanding the impact of symptoms on the burden of COPD. Respiratory Research18(1). doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0548-3

Ogan, N., Aydemir, Y., Evrin, T., Ataç, G., Baha, A., & Katipoglu, B. et al. (2019). Diaphragmatic thickness in chronic obstructive lung disease and relationship with clinical severity parameters. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences49(4), 1073-1078. doi: 10.3906/sag-1901-164

Sudharani, K., Manasasowmya, K., & Uma, S. (2019). Cross sectional study to know prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Journal of Medical Science And Clinical Research7(3). doi: 10.18535/jmscr/v7i3.129

Turan, Z., Ozyemişçi Taşkiran, O., Erden, Z., Kokturk, N., & Kaymak Karatas, G. (2019). Does hand grip strength decrease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation? A cross-sectional study. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences49(3), 802-808. doi: 10.3906/sag-181-22

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